To achieve the long-term temperature goals of the Paris Agreement, countries need to rapidly reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and scale up the use of cleaner alternatives. The scope of transformations needed is profound, wide-ranging, and likely to affect many aspects of everyday life. In the process of dismantling fossil fuel sectors, including its infrastructure, industries, and mining sites, laid-off workers and affected communities will require support. This is part of the just transition. In response to wide-ranging decarbonization policies, just transition litigation is arising as a challenge to how communities are included and human rights respected in this process. Just transition litigation is particularly developing in Latin America, a region where equity issues are particularly prominent.