U.S. Policy

This page organizes the citations it lists into the following categories:

  • Congressional proposals
  • National security issues
  • Policy options / questions
  • Regulation
  • Research and development
  • U.S. policy under President Bill Clinton
  • U.S. policy under President George W. Bush
  • U.S. policy under President Barack Obama
  • U.S. role in international agreements

Congressional proposals

Bishnoi, Vijay, Protectionism under a Green Label: Analysis in Light of the Waxman-Markey Climate Change Bill of 2009, 4 Carbon & Climate L. Rev. 65 (2010)

Coglianese, C. & D’Ambrosio, J., Policymaking Under Pressure: The Perils of Incremental Responses to Climate Change, 40 Conn. L. Rev. 1411 (2008)

Doran, Kevin & Ginnochio, Alaine, United States Climate Policy: Using Market-Based Strategies to Achieve Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions, 3 Envtl. & Energy L. & Pol’y J. 31 (2008)

Kho, Stephen, et al., Border Adjustment Measures in Proposed U.S. Climate Change Legislation – “a New Chapter in America’s Leadership on Climate Change?”, 9(3) Sustainable Dev. L & Pol’y 12 (2009)

Klee, Ann & Hall, Jessica, The Climate Change Debate: Is Congress Ready to Take the Heat? 2007 Energy & Mineral L. Inst. 3

Novins, Lisa, A Stop on the Road to Copenhagen: Implications of a U.S. Climate Bill, 9(3) Sustainable Dev. Law & Policy 52 (2009)

Peteron, Thomas, et al., Developing a Comprehensive Approach to Climate Change Policy in the United States that Fully Integrates Levels of Government and Economic Sectors, 26 Va. Envtl. L.J. 227 (2008)

Ponnambalam, Arjun, U.S. Climate Change Legislation and the Use of GATT Article XX to Justify a “Competitiveness Provision” in the Wake of Brazil-Tyres, 40 Geo. J. Int’l L. 261 (2008)

Richards, K. & Richards, S. , An Analysis of the Leading Climate Change Bills in the U.S. Senate, 38 Envtl. L. Rep. News & Analysis 10388 (2008)

Schroeder, Christopher, Global Warming and the Problem of Policy Innovation: Lessons from the Early Environmental Movement, 39 Envtl. L. 285 (2009)

Super, David, From the Greenhouse to the Poorhouse: Carbon-Emissions Control and the Rules of Legislative Joinder, 158 U. Penn. L. Rev. 1093 (2010)

National security issues

Busby, Joshua W., Climate Change and National Security: An Agenda for Action (2007), available at http://www.cfr.org/publication/14862/climate_change_and_national_security.html

Campbell, Kurt M., et al., The Age of Consequences: The Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Global Climate Change (2007), available at http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/071105_ageofconsequences.pdf

Donovan, Emily. “Deferring to the Assertion of National Security: The Creation of a National Security Exemption Under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969.” Hastings West-Northwest Journal of Environmental Law & Policy 17 (2011): 3–32.

Farah, Paolo Davide, and Piercarlo Rossi. “National Energy Policies and Energy Security in the Context of Climate Change and Global Environmental Risks: A Theoretical Framework for Reconciling Domestic and International Law Through a Multiscalar and Multilevel Approach.” European Energy & Environmental Law Review 20.6 (2011): 232–244.

Flowers, Arija. “National Security in the 21st Century: How the National Security Council Can Solve the President’s Climate Change Problem.” Sustainable Development Law & Policy 11 (2010): 50–55.

Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009. http://downloads.globalchange.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/climate-impacts-report.pdf

Jegen, Maya. “Two Paths to Energy Security: The EU and NAFTA.” International Journal 66 (2010): 73–90.

Kaye, Stuart, Climate Change and Maritime Securityin Climate Change and the Oceans, ch. 7 (Robin Warner & Clive Schofield eds., Routledge 2012).

Kimble, Melinda, Climate Change: Emerging Insecuritiesin Human and Environmental Security, ch. 8 (Felix Dodds & Tom Pippard eds., Routledge 2005).

Moses, Blair H. “The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Can Biotechnology Help Overcome Potential Obstacles to Meeting Its Energy Goals.” Kentucky Journal of Equine, Agriculture and Natural Resources Law 3 (2010): 41–70.

Padilla, Matthew, The Great Thaw: National Security at the Top of a Melting World, 8(3) Sustainable Dev. L. & Pol’y 52 (2008)

Rosen, Mark, Energy Independence and Climate Change: The Economic and National Security Consequences of Failing to Act, 44 U. Rich. L. Rev. 977 (2010)

Stuhltrager, James, Global Climate Change and National Security, 22(3) Nat. Resources & Envt. 36 (2008)

Tolan, Patrick E., Homeland Security Challenges of Global Climate Change, 54 Loy. L. Rev. 800 (2008)

Policy options/questions

Alvarez-Verdugo, Milagros. “Will Climate Change Alter the NPT Political Balance? New Challenges for the Non-proliferation Regime.” European Journal of International Law 21.1 (2010): 205–219.

An Illustrative Framework for a Clean Energy Standard for the Power Sector. Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, 2011. http://www.c2es.org/docUploads/CES_Framework.pdf

Arroyo, Vicki, Climate Change and U.S. Policy, in Climate Change Policies (Emilio Cerdá & Xavier Labandeira eds., Edward Elgar 2011).

Brohe, Arnaud et al., US Carbon Marketsin Carbon Markets: An International Business Guide, ch. 5 (Routledge 2009).

Brown, Marilyn A., and Benjamin K. Sovacool. Climate Change and Global Energy Security: Technology and Policy Options. The MIT Press, 2011.

Clean Energy Standards: State and Federal Policy Options and Implications. Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, 2011. http://www.c2es.org/docUploads/Clean-Energy-Standards-State-and-Federal-Policy-Options-and-Implications.pdf

Crabbé, Ann & Pieter Leroy, The Handbook of Environmental Policy Evaluation (Routledge 2008).

Daniels, Brigham. “Addressing Global Climate Change in an Age of Political Climate Change.” Brigham Young University Law Review2011 (2011): 1899-1936.

Dernbach, J.C. “The Essential and Growing Role of Legal Education in Achieving Sustainability.” Journal of Legal Education 60.3 (2011): 489-518.

Flatt, V.B. “Adapting Energy and Environmental Policy for Climate Change.” Vt. J. Envtl. L. 11 (2010): 655–779.

Grainey, Michael W. “Global Warming and Its Impact on Water Supply: The Energy Implications of Climate Change and the Effects of Our Energy Choices.” Willamette Law Review 47 (2010): 593–626.

Helme, Ned, Sector-based Approach to the Post-2012 Climate Change Policy Architecture, in The International Politics of Climate Change (Aynsley Kellow & Sonja Boehmer-Christiansen eds., Edward Elgar 2010) (2008).

Keller, Andrew N. “From Counterterrorism to Climate Change: Are Treaties Necessary to Solve International Problems?” Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (American Society of International Law) 104 (2010): 185–189.

Meyer, J. “Using the Public Trust Doctrine to Ensure the National Forests Protect the Public from Climate Change.” Hastings W.-NWJ Env. L. & Pol’y 16 (2010): 195–515.

Orts, Eric W. “Climate Contracts.” Virginia Environmental Law Journal 29.3 (2011): 197–236.

Purdy, Jedediah. “The Politics of Nature: Climate Change, Environmental Law, and Democracy.” Yale Law Journal 119.6 (2010): 1122–1209.

Rose, Adam, National Impacts of Mitigation Policy, in The Economics of Climate Change Policy, pt 5 (Edward Elgar 2009).

Scott, Anthony, Contracts in the Vertical Assignment of Powers Over the Environment, in Governing the Environment (Albert Breton et al. eds., Edward Elgar 2009).

Skodvin, Tora. “‘Pivotal Politics’ in US Energy and Climate Legislation.” Energy Policy 38.8 (2010): 4214–4223.

Smith, Richard J., On Finding Common Groundin Negotiating Environment and Science, ch. 9 (Routledge 2009).

Stewart, Mallory. “Are Treaties Always Necessary? How U.S. Domestic Law Can Give Teeth to Non-Binding International Commitments.” Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (American Society of International Law) 104 (2010): 189–193.

Zapata, Clovis, The American Hydrogen Strategy: Cooperation in Public Policy, in Innovation, Markets, and Sustainable Energy, ch. 12 (Paolo Migliavacca et al. eds., Edward Elgar 2009).


Braddock, Jim. “Greenhouse Gas Regulation Under the Federal and Texas Clean Air Acts.” Texas Environmental Law Journal 41 (2010): 129–146.

Daintith, Terence, Finders Keepers? How the Law of Capture Shaped the World Oil Industry (Routledge 2010).

Masur, Jonathan S, and Eric A Posner. “Climate Regulation and the Limits of Cost-Benefit Analysis.” California Law Review 99 (2011): 1557–1600.

Morrow, N.G. “Federal Regulation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions A Practical Certainty: How Will the Texas Energy Industry Survive-maybe Thrive?” Tex. Wesleyan L. Rev. 17 (2011): 237–265.

Motl, Bradley. “Reconciling German-Style Feed-in Tariffs with PURPA.” Wisconsin International Law Journal 28 (2010): 742–767.

Spence, David B. “Regulation, Republican Moments, and Energy Policy Reform.” Brigham Young University Law Review 2011 (2011): 1561–1624.

Streich, Michael E. “Green Energy and Green Economy Act, 2009: A Fit-ing Policy for North America.” Houston Journal of International Law 33 (2010): 419–452.

Tomain, Joseph P. “Our Generation’s Sputnik Moment: Regulating Energy Innovation.” Utah Environmental Law Review 31 (2011): 389–428.

Torriti, Jacopo, and Ragnar Lofstedt. “The Role of Regulatory Impact Assessment in Fighting Climate Change and the Economic Downturn: A EU-US Perspective.” European Journal of Risk Regulation 3 (2010): 251–257.

Research and development

Kammen, Daniel M. & Nemet, Gregory F., “Reversing the Incredible Shrinking Energy R&D Budget,”Issues in Science and Technology, pages 84-88 (Fall 2005)

Rimmer, Matthew, 6. ‘Clean Energy for America, Power up America’: Patent Law and Compulsory Licensing, in Intellectual Property and Climate Change (Edward Elgar 2011).

Tai, Stephanie, Science Policy through the Lens of U.S. Domestic Climate Change Litigation, 27(3) Wisc. Int’l L.J. 462 (2009)

Van Fleet, Daniel, Legal Approaches To Promote Technological Solutions To Climate Change, 2008 Duke L. & Tech. Rev. 8 (2008)

U.S. policy under President Bill Clinton

McGee, Jeffrey & Taplin, Ros, The Asia-Pacific Partnership and the United States’ International Climate Change Policy, 19 Colo. J. Int’l Envtl. L. & Pol’y 179 (2008)

Peterson, Thomas, The Evolution of State Climate Change Policy in the United States: Lessons Learned and New Directions, 14 Widener L.J. 81 (2004)

Royden, Amy, U.S. Climate Change Policy Under President Clinton: A Look Back, 32 Golden Gate U. L. Rev. 415 (2002)

Thackeray, Richard, Struggling for Air: The Kyoto Protocol, Citizens’ Suits Under the Clean Air Act, and the United States’ Options for Addressing Global Climate Change, 14 Ind. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 855 (2004).

Wang, Waltre. “Looking Back to Move Forward: Revisiting the Btu in Evaluating Current Policy Alternatives.” San Diego Journal of Climate & Energy Law 2 (2010): 181–197.

U.S. policy under President George W. Bush

Ackerman, Sybill, What Are Lobbyists Saying on Capital Hill? Climate Change Legislation as a Case Study for Reform, 37 Envtl. L. 137 (2007)

Brittany Howell, Is President Bush’s Vision Impaired? An Analysis of President Bush’s ”Climate VISION” Initiative, 19 J. Nat. Resources & Envtl. L. 59 (2004-2005)

Carlarne, C., Notes From a Climate Change Pressure-Cooker:  Subfederal Attempts at Transformation Meet National Resistance in the USA, 40 Conn. L. Rev. 1351 (2008)

Cass, Loren, The Failures of American and European Climate Policy: International Norms, Domestic Policies, and Unachievable Commitments (State University of New York Press 2006)

Freeman, Jody& Vermeule, Adrian, Massachusetts v. EPA: From Politics to Expertise, 2007 Sup. Ct. Rev. 51

Harris, A. W., Derogating the Precautionary Principle, 19 Villanova Envtl. L.J. 1 (2008)

Hobley, Anthony, Is Kyoto Dead? Climate Change after Bush, 10(5) Envtl. Liability 167 (2002)

Kammen, Daniel M. & Nemet, Gregory F., “Reversing the Incredible Shrinking Energy R&D Budget,”Issues in Science and Technology, pages 84-88 (Fall 2005)

McGee, Jeffrey, and Ros Taplin. “The Asia-Pacific Partnership and the United States’ International Climate Change Policy.” Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law & Policy 19.2 (2008): 179–218.

Rabe, Barry G., Statehouse and Greenhouse: The Emerging Politics of American Climate Change Policy(Brookings Institute Press 2004)

Rich, Robert, et al., Use and Misuse of Science: Global Climate Change and the Bush Administration, 14(3)Va. J. Soc. Pol’y & L. 223 (2007)

Rosencranz, Armin, U.S. Climate Change Policy under G. W. Bush, 32(4) Golden Gate U. L. Rev. 479 (2002)

Thackeray, Richard, Struggling for Air: The Kyoto Protocol, Citizens’ Suits Under the Clean Air Act, and the United States’ Options for Addressing Global Climate Change, 14 Ind. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 855 (2004)

Thomas Peterson, The Evolution of State Climate Change Policy in the United States: Lessons Learned and New Directions, 14 Widener L.J. 81 (2004)

Thorson, Erica, On Thin Ice: The Failure of the United States and the World Heritage Committee to Take Climate Change Mitigation Pursuant to the World Heritage Convention Seriously, 38 Envtl. L. 139 (2008)

Waterman, Paul, From Kyoto to ANWR: Critiquing the Bush Administration’s Withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, 13 Transnat’l L. & Contemp. Probs. 749 (2003)

Wolf, Liana, Countervailing a Hidden Subsidy: The U.S. Failure to Require Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions, 19 Geo. Int’l Envtl. L. Rev. 83 (2006)

U.S. policy under President Barack Obama

Adams Miller, E. Working With Government Agencies In Climate Change Law, 2009 WL 1342291 (ASPATORE) (2009).

Adler, Jonathan H. “Heat Expands All Things: The Proliferation of Greenhouse Gas Regulation Under the Obama Administration.” Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 34 (2011): 421–453.

Battista, Gregory, The Obama Climate Change and Energy Agenda: Bad Timing for a Renaissance, 16(5)Envtl. Liability 167 (2002)

Bell, R.G., and D. Callan. “More Than Meets the Eye: The Social Cost of Carbon in US Climate Policy.” Environmental Law Institute(2011). http://pdf.wri.org/more_than_meets_the_eye_social_cost_of_carbon.pdf

Camacho, Alejandro, Adapting Governance to Climate Change: Managing Uncertainty Through a Learning Infrastructure, 59 Emory L.J. 1 (2009)

Carlarne, Cinnamon. “The Glue That Binds or the Straw That Broke the Camel’s Back: Exploring the Implications of U.S. Reengagement in Global Climate Change Negotiations.” Tulane Journal of International and Comparative Law 19 (2010): 113–150.

Czarnezki, Jason J. “Climate Policy & U.S.-China Relations.” Vermont Journal of Environmental Law 12 (2010): 659–674.

Freeman, Jody. “The Obama Administration’s National Auto Policy: Lessons from the Car Deal.” Harvard Environmental Law Review35.2 (2011): 343–374.

Garnaut, Ross. “Global Warming After the Obama Accord.” Monash University Law Review 36.1 (2010): 1–14.

Hunter, David, International Climate Negotiations: Opportunities And Challenges For The Obama Administration, 19 Duke Envtl. L. & Pol’y F. 247 (2009)

Lazarus, Richard J. “Climate Change Law in and Over Time.” San Diego Journal of Climate & Energy Law 2 (2010): 29–43.

Martella, Roger, Climate Change Along the Northeast Corridor: How Washington and New York are Approaching and Preparing for Greenhouse Gas Controls, 18 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 14 (2010)

Miller, Nicole, et al., Policy, Urban Form, and Tools for Measuring and Managing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The North American Problem, 80 U. Colo. L. Rev. 977 (2009)

Osofsky, Hari M. “Diagonal Federalism and Climate Change Implications for the Obama Administration.” Alabama Law Review 62 (2010): 237–304.

Spengler, Eric S. “A Shift in the Wind: The Siting of Wind Power Projects on Public Lands in the Obama Era.” Indiana Law Journal 86 (2011): 1185–1218.

Westmoreland, Joshua, Global Warming and Originalism: The Role of the EPA in the Obama Administration, 37 EB.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 225 (2010)

U.S. role in international agreements

Agrawala, Shardul & Andresen, Steinar, Indispensability and Indefensibility? The United States in the Climate Treaty Negotiations, 5 Global Governance 457 (1999)

Cass, Loren, The Failures of American and European Climate Policy: International Norms, Domestic Policies, and Unachievable Commitments (State University of New York Press 2006)

Hunter, David, International Climate Negotiations: Opportunities and Challenges for the Obama Administration, 19(2) Duke Envtl. L. & Pol’y F. 247 (2009)

Kammen, Daniel, Renewable Energy in United States Foreign Policy, 36(3) Golden Gate U. L. Rev. 327 (2006)

Kopp, Raymond et al., International Forest Carbon in the US Congress, in Deforestation and Climate Change, ch. 4 (Valentina Bosetti & Rubin Lubowski eds., Edward Elgar 2010).

Malone, Linda A., Enforcing International Environmental Law through Domestic Law Mechanisms in the United Statesin Compliance and Enforcement in Environmental Law, ch. 5 (Louis Kotze et al. eds., Edward Elgar 2011).

McGee, Jeffrey & Taplin, Ros The Asia-Pacific Partnership and the United States’ International Climate Change Policy, 19 Colo. J. Int’l Envtl. L. & Pol’y 179 (2008)

Stewart, Richard B. & Wiener, Jonathan B., Reconstructing Climate Policy: Beyond Kyoto (American Enterprise Institute Press, 2003), available at http://www.aei.org/files/2003/04/29/20040218_book211.pdf.

Sunstein, Cass, The World vs. the United States and China? The Complex Climate Change Incentives of the Leading Greenhouse Gas Emitters, 55 UCLA L. Rev. 1675 (2008)