EIA Guidelines for Assessing the Impact of a Project on Climate Change
This guidance describes how federal agencies should account for the effects of a proposal on climate change (using GHG emissions as a proxy for those effects) as well as the effects of climate change on the proposal.
Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in NEPA Reviews, Council on Environmental Quality (2019)
This guidance describes how federal agencies should account for the effects of a proposal on climate change (using GHG emissions as a proxy for those effects) as well as the effects of climate change on the proposal. The 2019 guidance is generally considered to be a weakening of the 2016 guidance.
User’s Manual for the Co-Benefits Risk Assessment (COBRA) Screening Model, Environmental Protection Agency, June 2020
This manual provides a quick-start tutorial for using the EPA’s COBRA Screening Model, as well as information on utilizing baseline data, creating new emissions scenarios, viewing results, and employing the mapping functionality,
Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit (RAPID), U.S. Department of Energy (2020)
This toolkit provides various resources to help agencies and developers permit renewable energy and bulk transmission projects. Resources include a regulatory and permitting database, reference library, a collection of best practices, and a collection of document sets and details from past NEPA analyses.
The Carbon OnLine Estimator (COLE), U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2016
This software program draws from Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to provide basic carbon inventory and growth-and-yield estimates for a particular forest, region, or state. Its information can be used to assess estimated net GHG emissions and carbon stock changes for proposed land or resource management actions.
Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Agriculture and Forestry: Methods for Entity-Scale Inventory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, July 2014
This technical report outlines the preferred science-based approach and specific methods for estimating GHG emissions at the farm or forest scale. Its information is intended to be used by the USDA, landowners, and other stakeholders when assessing the GHG impacts of their management decisions.
COMET-Farm, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2020
This software program guides users through describing their farm and ranch management practices in order to generate a report comparing the carbon changes and GHG emissions between current management practices and indicated future scenarios.
Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS), U.S. Department of Agriculture, Accessed July 2020
This software program simulates forest vegetation change in response to natural succession, disturbances, and proposed management actions, and can estimate carbon stock changes over time. A climate-sensitive version of the simulator, Climate-FVS, is available for western states.
Fuel and Fire Tools (FFT), U.S. Department of Agriculture, Accessed July 2020
This software program integrates several fire management tools, allowing users to perform calculations related to predicted fire behavior, fuel consumption, pollutant (including carbon) emissions, and heat release. Specific outputs include quantitative measures of carbon storage, combustible carbon (by fuelbed category) and estimates of emissions from fire.
The Facility Level Information on Greenhouse Gases Tool (FLIGHT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2019
This software program estimates GHG emissions by fuel, industry, location, or facility as part of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP).
Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, March 2020
This software program allows users to convert various units of energy usage into equivalent amounts of GHG emissions estimated to be produced from that usage, and vice versa.
Co-Benefits Risk Assessment (COBRA) Screening Model, Environmental Protection Agency, June 2020
This free tool helps state and local governments estimate and map the air quality, human health and related economic benefits of clean energy policies and programs.
Infrastructure Carbon Estimator, U.S. Department of Transportation, June 2017
This spreadsheet tool allows users to estimate the lifecycle energy and GHG emissions from the construction and maintenance of transportation facilities. It is designed to inform planning and pre-engineering analysis.
Climate Change – Model Language in Transportation Plans, Federal Highway Administration, May 13, 2010
This document provides advice and excerpts from model transportation plans for agencies seeking to incorporate climate change into their plans in lieu of federal guidance. It is meant for states’ departments of transportation (DOTs) and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs).
Secretarial Order 3226, U.S. Department of the Interior, Feb. 22, 2010
In section 3(a), the memo establishes “Climate Change Planning Requirements,” mandating consideration of climate change impacts in plans involving the use of the Department’s resources. The requirements apply equally to bureaus within the Department.
Climate Change Considerations in Project Level NEPA Analysis, US Forest Service, Jan. 13, 2009
This guidance is intended to achieve consistency across the agency for dealing with climate change in projects’ Environmental Impact Statements (EISs), and as such is set of recommendations rather than rules.
Integrating Climate Change into the Transportation Planning Process, Federal Highway Administration, July 2008
This guide predates “Climate Change – Model Language in Transportation Plans.” In addition to that guide’s features, it covers the inclusion of climate change in existing transportation plans, quantification of GHG impacts in transportation plans, GHG mitigation strategies in transportation planning, and climate change adaptation in transportation planning. It was written to promote the incorporation of climate change in transportation planning.
CEQA Guidelines Amendments, California Natural Resources Agency (2018)
The amendments made to the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) mandate that lead agencies evaluate to what degree their project’s direct and indirect GHGs impact the environment, whether the emissions exceed a threshold of significance, if they conflict with existing plans to reduce GHG emissions, and what measures may be taken to reduce significant impacts. The guidelines apply to nearly all projects in the state.
CEQA Guidelines Amendments, California Natural Resources Agency, Dec. 30, 2009
Earlier CEQA guidelines amendments, preceding the 2018 version above.
CEQA Air Quality Guidelines, Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD), May 2017
The Bay Area Air Quality Management District’s Air Quality Guidelines provide recommended procedures for evaluating potential air quality impacts in the Bay Area consistent with CEQA requirements, while the Adopted Air Quality CEQA Thresholds of Significance establish triggering levels of a range of pollutants, including but not limited to, carbon dioxide.
CEQA Air Quality Guidelines and Adopted Air Quality CEQA Thresholds of Significance, Bay Area Air Quality Management District, June 2, 2010
An earlier BAAQMD guidance preceding the 2017 update, above.
Tools and Methodologies, Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) (2020)
This database provides air quality analysis tools intended to assist lead agencies in analyzing air quality and GHG impacts from proposed land use projects and plans in California.
This discussion draft contains initial thoughts on updates to the 2008 technical advisory CEQA and Climate Change: Addressing Climate Change Through California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) Review. It incorporates developments made since June 2008, including regulatory changes made to the regulations that implement CEQA (commonly known as the “CEQA Guidelines”) in late 2018 by the California Natural Resources Agency.
2017 Regional Transportation Plan Guidelines for Regional Transportation Planning Agencies, California Transportation Commission (2017)
This document provides a uniform planning framework throughout California for Regional Transportation Planning Agencies in creating Regional Transportation Plans . It emphasizes the importance of estimating the impact of the transportation system on air quality within the region during the regional planning process.
Beyond 2020 and Newhall: A Field Guide to New CEQA Greenhouse Gas Thresholds and Climate Action Plan Targets for California, California Association of Environmental Professionals (AEP), October 2016
This white paper suggests defensible GHG thresholds for use in CEQA analyses and GHG reduction targets (respectively) in climate action plans, in light of the change in focus on the 2030 reduction target.
2020 CEQA Statute & Guidelines, California Association of Environmental Professionals (AEP), 2020
This document is an unofficial compilation of CEQA and the CEQA Guidelines, available as of January 1, 2020.
The Bay Area Air Quality Management District’s Air Quality Guidelines provide recommended procedures for evaluating potential air quality impacts in the Bay Area consistent with CEQA requirements, while the Adopted Air Quality CEQA Thresholds of Significance establish triggering levels of a range of pollutants, including but not limited to, carbon dioxide.
Preliminary Draft Staff Proposal: Recommended Approaches for Setting Interim Significance Thresholds for Greenhouse Gases Under the California Environmental Quality Act, California Air Resources Board (CARB), Oct. 2008
In this proposal, CARB recommends that threshold levels and types (whether quantitative, qualitative, or performance-based) be tailored on a sector-by-sector basis. The draft is still under review and is not binding.
CEQA and Climate Change: Addressing Climate Change Through California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) Review, Governor’s Office of Planning and Research (OPR), June 2008
This document served as California’s interim technical guidelines for incorporating climate change into CEQA project planning. It was intended for use by professional planners, land use officials, and CEQA practitioners. The guidelines provided OPR’s perspective, and served as optional recommendations until the CEQA Guidelines Amendments took effect.
Addendum to the 2007 Regional Transportation Plan Guidelines: Addressing Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions During the RTP Process, California Transportation Commission, May 2008
This addendum was requested by the State Senate to incorporate climate change into Regional Transportation Plans (RTPs), which, like projects, are reviewed under CEQA. The best practices identified are not required by law, but MPOs and regional transportation planning agencies (RTPAs) are “strongly encouraged” to follow them.
CEQA and Climate Change: Evaluating and Addressing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Projects Subject to the California Environmental Quality Act, by California Air Pollution Control Officers Association (CAPCOA), Jan. 2008
This “resource guide” explicitly states that it is not a guidance document and is not intended to direct agencies on how to consider GHGs, but instead to provide information about elements of CEQA that are pertinent to GHG consideration. It is written to assist agencies as they establish procedures for evaluating projects’ GHG emissions under CEQA.
Alternative Approaches to Analyzing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Climate Change in CEQA Documents, Association of Environmental Professionals, June 2007:
This independent analysis provides a framework with which to address climate change in the CEQA review process. It explores eight approaches that project proponents may choose to use to address climate change absent regulatory guidance.
Recommendations by the Association of Environmental Professionals (AEP) on How to Analyze Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Climate Change in CEQA Documents, Association of Environmental Professionals, March 2007
This independent analysis provides a framework with which to address climate change in the CEQA review process. It explores six approaches that project proponents may choose to use to address climate change absent regulatory guidance.
Massachusetts Updated Clean Energy and Climate Plan for 2020, Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EEA) (2015)
This report is a 2015 update to the Massachusetts Clean Energy and Climate Plan for 2020. The update emphasizes initiatives that address energy challenges that face residents and businesses across Massachusetts. The update “describes policies that the Baker-Polito Administration will rely on to ensure that emission reductions required by the GWSA are achieved by 2020.”
Revised MEPA Greenhouse Gas Emissions Policy and Protocol, Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, May 5, 2010
The Massachusetts Environmental Policy Act (MEPA) GHG Policy requires all projects that must already file an EIR, excluding those qualifying for a de minimis exception, to enumerate their direct and indirect GHG emissions and evaluate mitigation measures. The protocol does not establish significance thresholds, but instead considers projects’ emissions and mitigations options on a case-by-case basis. Additional information can be found here.
General Guidance for Carbon Footprint Development in Environmental Review, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, December 2011
This guidance provides instruction on incorporating climate change into Minnesota’s state-equivalent of NEPA EISs, Environmental Assessment Worksheets (EAWs). It applies to “proposers of projects that must obtain both an air emissions permit and also complete environmental review.” These proponents must determine the carbon footprint of their project by using the Climate Registry’s General Reporting Protocol guidelines for Scope 1 and Scope 2 categories (direct and indirect GHG emissions). The guidance also provides alternative methodologies for various emissions source categories, Minnesota-specific CO2 emission factors, and the emissions rates of the state’s largest electricity providers.
General Guidance for Carbon Footprint Development in Environmental Review, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (March 2009)
An earlier Minnesota Pollution Control Agency guidance preceding the 2011 update, above.
Quick Reference: Environmental Assessment Worksheet (EAW), Minnesota Environmental Quality Board, July 2017
This quick reference document provides a brief overview of the process of completing an Environmental Assessment Worksheet in an effective and efficient manner. It contains a link to the actual worksheet, which includes questions regarding projected hazardous air pollutants, criteria pollutants, and greenhouse gas emissions from a proposed project.
Air Emissions Risk Analysis (AERA) Guidance, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), February 2019
This document provides general information on facility emissions sources, identifying potentially emitted air toxics, and emission estimation methods, in order to facilitate the completion of an Air Emissions Risk Analysis.
Environmental Review Unit Environmental Assessment Worksheet - Air Assessment Practices, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA), May 2020
This document provides guidance on air assessment practices during the preparation of an Environmental Assessment Worksheet.
Minnesota Administrative Rules Chapter 4410: Environmental Quality Board Environmental Review, Minnesota Office of the Revisor of Statutes (2020)
This chapter of the Minnesota Administrative Rules mandates the implementation of environmental review procedures established by the Minnesota Environmental Policy Act. It provides usable information to the project proposer, governmental decision makers and the public concerning the primary environmental effects of a proposed project. “Subp. 15. Air pollution.” contains information regarding GHG emissions.
How to Prepare an Environmental Assessment Worksheet for the MPCA, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) (May 2007)
This is the original guidance for Minnesota EAWs that mention GHGs. Question 23 requires that the “type, sources, quantities and compositions” of GHGs be included among stationary source air emissions. It also requires that the project proponents describe “any proposed pollution prevention techniques and proposed air pollution control devices,” as well as the “potential impacts from pollutants.” This policy applies whenever MPCA is “the Responsible Unit of Government for an EAW.”
The SEQR Handbook, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC), Fourth Edition (2020)
This handbook provides agencies, project sponsors (alternatively “applicants”), and the public with a practical reference guide to the State Environmental Quality Review Act (SEQR) – Article 8 of the Environmental Conservation Law. It introduces the basic SEQR process, discusses important procedural and substantive details, and addresses common questions that arise during the process of applying SEQR. Section C addresses questions such as “Why must climate change impacts be considered in an EIS?” and “What are some measures to avoid or reduce a project’s impacts on climate change?”
State Environmental Quality Review Act (SEQR) Forms, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) (2019)
This webpage contains downloadable PDF versions of SEQR forms, including Short Environmental Assessment Forms, Full Environmental Assessment Forms, the Notice of Complete Draft EIS / Final EIS, and the SEQR Findings Form. The forms include questions regarding emissions calculations. It also includes an Environmental Assessment Form Mapper Application to answer geographic or place-based questions.
The Environmental Manual (TEM), New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Engineering Division – Office of the Environment
The guiding document for the NYSDOT’s “policy, procedure and technical guidance on environmental matters relating to the planning, design, construction and maintenance of transportation facilities” is currently being updated and will begin to formally address climate change. According to the already-released table of contents, the new manual will include one section titled “project level energy and ghg analysis [sic]” and another named “TIP/Plan energy and ghg analysis [sic].” The two are likely to provide guidance for consideration of GHGs in projects and plans to be filed with New York’s State Environmental Quality Review Act (SEQRA).
Guide for Assessing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Environmental Impact Statement, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC), July 15, 2009
This guide is expressly intended to advise DEC staff on considering energy use and GHG emissions in SEQR EISs when DEC is the lead agency, though the guidance is believed to influence other agencies in assessing GHG impacts. It calls for the quantification of direct and indirect GHG emissions, and also provides methodological support for several common emissions sources.
SEQRA and Climate Change, The Municipal Art Society of New York, April 2009
This document makes a case for GHG analysis under SEQRA and advocates three protocols: “(1) a GHG Protocol; (2) a Protocol for Measuring the Impacts of Climate Change on an Action; and (3) an Energy Environmental Assessment Addendum.” It then explains how climate change should be considered in an EIS, including quantifying direct and indirect emissions, calculating emissions to the level of “total CO2e per user for each component of emissions,” conducting mitigation analysis, and evaluating climate change impacts on the project. The document’s proposed GHG Protocol was not officially adopted.
For New York City-specific guidance, see the Local Guidelines section below.
Environmental Manual, M 31-11.21, Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) Environmental Services Office, June 2019
This manual contains guidance for compliance with state and federal environmental laws and regulations for all phases of project delivery. It includes Exhibit 400-1 on Environmental Review and Transportation Decision Making and Exhibit 400-4 on the NEPA/SEPA Environmental Review Process. Section 412.05 addresses climate change and greenhouse gases.
WSDOT Guidance - Project-Level Greenhouse Gas Evaluations under NEPA and SEPA, Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) Environmental Services Office, February 2018
This guidance outlines a standard analytical process and template for addressing project-level GHG emissions in environmental documentation. All WSDOT projects subject to NEPA and SEPA are required to follow this guidance.
State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Guidance on Addressing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) Draft, Washington State Department of Ecology, May 27, 2010
With this draft policy, SEPA will require public agencies to assess GHG emissions “over [a project’s] lifetime including the construction phase,” evaluate climate change impacts on the project, identify feasible mitigation measures for emissions and impacts, and assess the “significance” of unmitigated emissions. The guidance is currently being amended or redrafted. Additional information can be found here.
Guidance for Project-Level Greenhouse Gas and Climate Change Evaluations, Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) Environmental Services Office, Oct. 2010
This guidance is mandatory for all WSDOT projects preparing SEPA or NEPA EIS/EAs. It requires the quantitative analysis of operational and construction GHG emissions, and the qualitative consideration of embodied/lifecycle emissions for all EISs.
City of Orange, CA
Interim Guidance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis, City of Orange Community Development Department, April 2010
This guidance writes that “most CEQA documents for non-exempt projects in the City will be required to contain a quantitative analysis of GHGs using URBEMIS.” It also mandates that a project’s proponents discuss its consistency with “the goals, policies and implementation programs of the City’s 2010 General Plan related to GHGs.” Projects should abide by South Coast Air Quality Management District’s recommended “Tier 3” quantitative thresholds. Mitigation measures should be pursued to reduce significance below these thresholds.
2014 CEQR [City Environmental Quality Review] Technical Manual, New York City Mayor’s Office of Environmental Coordination, revised March 2014
The guidance may require a GHG emissions assessment for projects that already require an EIS and propose generating power, altering the city’s solid waste management system, or creating a development of at least 350,000 square feet, but decisions are made by lead agencies on a case-by-case basis. It mandates and provides resources to assist estimating indirect and direct operations emissions, mobile source emissions, construction emissions, and emissions from solid waste management. Next, the GHG emissions and mitigation measures must be evaluated relative to the City’s GHG reduction goal for 2030. The guidance is now in effect. Additional information can be found here.
2012 CEQR [City Environmental Quality Review] Technical Manual, Mayor’s Office of Environmental Coordination, January 2012 (rev. 6/5/13)
An earlier CEQR guidance preceding the 2014 update, above.
Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts Through the State Environmental Policy Act, King County Executive, Aug. 31, 2007
The executive order mandates that all King County departments evaluate climate change impacts when they are the lead agency in a project subject to SEPA.
Significance Determination Thresholds, City of San Diego, July 2016
This document outlines the Significance Determination Thresholds to assist City of San Diego staff, project proponents, and the public in determining whether, based on substantial evidence, a project may have a significant impact on the environment under Section 21082.2 of CEQA, and therefore the environmental impact requires mitigation. Section T. covers GHG emissions.
Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD)
CEQA Guidelines, BAAQMD, May 2011
This document contains the following relevant sections:
- Chapter 2.2 – Thresholds of Significance: Greenhouse Gases – Project Level
- Chapter 4.2 – Operational-Related Impacts: Greenhouse Gas Impacts
- Chapter 8.2 – Construction-Related Impacts: Greenhouse Gases
- Chapter 9.2 – Plan-Level Impacts: Greenhouse Gases
It establishes thresholds of significance and steps for significance determination for lead agencies within its district.
Final CEQA Thresholds of Significance, BAAQMD, June 2, 2010
This is a two-page chart containing emissions thresholds for various air pollutants. It has operational-related GHG emissions thresholds at the project level, the plan level, and the regional plan level.
Proposed Air Quality CEQA Thresholds of Significance, BAAQMD, Dec. 7, 2009
This is the complete proposal for the CEQA fuidelines regarding GHGs. It provides justification for revising the emissions thresholds.
CEQA Guidance & Tools, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, 2020
This guide provides expectations of analysis in line with state suggestions, a list of common methodologies, instructions for considering direct and indirect GHG emissions, and recommendations that the threshold of significance for GHG emissions be related to AB 32’s GHG reduction goals.
This report introduces the idea of Best Performance Standards (BPS), to be established by district staff for specific classes and categories of stationary sources, as a means to a less than significant impact on climate change and a streamlined analysis process. Only projects that do not implement BPS “would require quantification of project specific GHG emissions.” The document then advises on establishing business-as-usual and baseline comparisons and determining project significance. This policy applies explicitly to the district staff when it serves as the lead agency in a project, but the guidelines are influential locally.
This guidance document proposes that the interim GHG significance thresholds be the Tier 3 screening level, at which 90% of total GHG emissions from new or modified stationary sources would be subject to some level of CEQA analysis. It also provides recommendations for analyzing GHG emissions in CEQA documents and features a table comparing CARB’s and AQMD’s Interim GHG Significance Thresholds Approaches. Additional information can be found here.
General Guidance for Proponents Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement, Northern Territory Environment Protection Authority (NT EPA), October 2019
This guidance provides advice for proponents who are preparing an Environmental Impact Statement. Its primary intent is to inform the content and standard of the Draft EIS, to ensure that it is adequate to be published for public comment. It also provides information on completing the final EIS by submitting the Supplement (addressing written comments on the Draft EIS), addressing any changes to the Proposal, and providing any further information requested by the NT EPA. Section 2.2.1 explains that a Draft EIS must include “significant environmental interactions” of the project proposal, including annual GHG emissions and regional predictions associated with climate change.
Northern Territory Government Environmental Impact Assessment Guide: Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change, Department of Natural Resources, Environment, the Arts and Sport of the Northern Territory Government, July 2, 2009
This guidance requires that project proponents estimate GHG emissions from the construction and operation phases, detail “the project lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions and the greenhouse gas efficiency of the proposed project (per unit and/or other agreed performance indicators),” ,and demonstrate consideration of efficiency and mitigation measures. Offsets are encouraged if they take place within the Northern Territory. A program must be outlined “which includes ongoing monitoring, investigation, review and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and abatement measures.” Lastly, the impacts of climate change on the project must be considered. It appears that all projects must adhere to these guidelines.
A Guide for Incorporating Adaptation to Climate Change into Land Use Planning, CEF Consultants Ltd and CBCL Limited, Nov. 2005
This guide is designed to help “land use planners to incorporate adaptation to climate change within municipal planning strategies.” It provides guidance in approaches municipalities may take to incorporate climate change into land use planning.
Incorporating Climate Change Considerations in Environmental Assessment: General Guidance for Practitioners, The Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Climate Change and Environmental Assessment (Canada), Nov. 2003
This document was written “to provide environmental assessment (EA) practitioners with general guidance for incorporating climate change considerations in project EA.”
This guidance aims to assist EIA practitioners assess climate change implications and incorporate climate change considerations into the EIA process.
Environmental Impact Assessment of Projects Guidance on Screening, European Commission (2017)
This guidance focuses on the screening stage of the EIA process, which ascertains whether the project’s effects on the environment are expected to be significant. This guidance aims to improve the decisions taken on the need for an EIA and the terms of reference on which the assessment is made. Page 71 includes information on the Industrial Emissions Directive and associated permits.
Environmental Impact Assessment of Projects Guidance on Scoping, European Commission (2017)
This guidance focuses on the scoping stage of the EIA process, wherein developers ask competent authorities about the extent of information required to make an informed decision about the project and its effects on the environment. This guidance aims to improve the decisions taken on the need for an EIA and the terms of reference on which the assessment is made. Page 60 contains guiding questions relating to the effects of emissions releases from the project on climate change and ozone depletion.
This guidance aims to help developers and consultants alike prepare quality EIA Reports and to guide competent authorities and other interested parties as they review the reports. Section 1.3.2. contains information on impacts related to climate change, specifically concerning GHG emissions.
This publication assembles the most significant rulings of the CJEU related to the provisions of the codified EIA Directive and SEA Directive. It summarizes statements of the Court of Justice which can be considered as general principles of the EIA and SEA directives or the EU law as a whole; it contains statements of the Court concerning the provisions of the EIA Directive; and it contains statements of the Court concerning the provisions of the SEA Directive. Amended Annex IV states the necessity for a description of “the impact of the project on climate (for example the nature and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions).”
Report on the application and effectiveness of the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive, European Commission, July 2009
In 2009, the European Commission issued a review of the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive in which it set a goal to develop guidelines for the integration of climate change impacts in EIAs by 2011.
Natural Resources, Environmental Management, Hazard Risk Reduction and Climate Change. Jamaican Ministry of the Environment, 2009
This report outlines a National Action Plan which calls for the inclusion of climate risk analysis in Environmental Impact Assessments.
Adaptation Handbook: Undertaking Risk Treatment for Coastal Climate Change Risks in the Republic of Kiribati. Kiribati Adaptation Project, 2009
This manual provides guidance for the inclusion of climate change risk assessment in environmental planning processes for coastal projects.
Climate Change in Water Management, Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, 2010
This report outlines the role of Environmental Impact Assessments in addressing climate change risks and adaptation involving water projects.
Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A Guidance Manual for Local Government in New Zealand, Ministry for the Environment, May 2008
This guidance is designed “to help local governments identify and quantify opportunities and hazards that climate change poses for their functions, responsibilities, and infrastructure.”
Spanish National Climate Change Adaptation Plan, Spanish Ministry of Environment, 2006.
This plan calls for for the development of guidelines and regulations to incorporate the foreseen impacts of climate change into the Environmental Impact Assessment process.
Strategic Environmental Assessment and Climate Change: Guidance for Practitioners, Environment Agency, Countryside Council for Wales, English Nature, UKCIP, Levett-Therivel Sustainability Consultants, CAG Consultants and the Environmental Change Institute, June 2007
This guide presents ways climate change impacts and mitigation measures can be described and evaluated in Strategic Environmental Assessments. An earlier edition is available here.
Climate Change Impacts and Spatial Planning Decision Support Guidance, ESPACE (European Spatial Planning: Adapting to Climate Events) and UK Environment Ministry, June 2008.
This report presents guidance for land use planners in carrying out climate change risk assessments, emphasizing adaptation. It outlines analytical tools created under the UK Climate Impacts Program (UKCIP) which could be applicable to other northern European countries.
Caribbean Development Bank
Updated Sourcebook on the Integration of Natural Hazards into the Environmental Impact Assessment Process, Caribbean Development Bank
This report, produced with support from the Canadian International Development Agency and USAID, outlines recommendations for the integration of climate change considerations into environmental impact assessment.
Sourcebook on the Integration of Natural Hazards into the Environmental Impact Assessment Process, Caribbean Community Adaptation to Climate Change in the Caribbean (ACCC) Project and the Caribbean Development Bank, 2004
An earlier Caribbean Development Bank guidance, preceding the 2015 update, above.
Methodologies for the Assessment of Project GHG Emissions and Emissions Variations, EIB Project Carbon Footprint Methodologies, Version 11, European Investment Bank (EIB), December 2018
This document provides guidance to EIB staff on how to calculate the carbon footprint of the investment projects financed by the EIB. It also presents how the EIB calculates the GHG emissions of its projects to its auditors, external stakeholders, and other interested parties.
International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA)
Impact Assessment and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS), Fastips No. 19, International Association for Impact Assessment (2019)
This fact sheet details how impact assessment can help countries attain Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the strategic and project decisions they continuously make.
Guiding Principles for Air Quality Assessment Components of Environmental Impact Assessment, International Association for Impact Assessment, February 2017
This document is intended for experienced air quality practitioners representing proponents developing EIA statements, and also reviews of such documents (regulatory or third-party peer viewers). It provides guiding principles on the prediction of emissions and resultant air quality levels from proposed development in AQIAs.
Inter-American Development Bank
Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Evaluating their Significance, Institute of Environmental Management & Assessment (IEMA) (2017)
This guidance aims to assist practitioners with addressing GHG emissions assessment and mitigation in statutory and non-statutory Environmental Impact Assessment. It is not a prescriptive ‘how-to’ guide and will be updated once the process of incorporating GHG assessment in EIA matures.
Analytical Framework for Climate Change Action. Inter-American Development Bank, March 2010
This manual includes recommendations for addressing climate change vulnerability in the bank’s risk assessment activities for development programs.
Incorporating Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Environmental Impact Assessments, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2010
This report examines ways that climate risk assessment can be integrated into EIA processes, and includes an overview of the policies that various national governments have adopted on climate change impacts in EIAs.
Adapting to Climate Vulnerability and Change: A Guidance Manual for Development Planning, United States Agency for International Development, August 2007
This manual outlines the procedure for integrating the assessment of climate risk and vulnerability into the USAID project planning and review process.
The World Bank
This report provides guidelines for the inclusion of climate risk in environmental assessments undertaken for World Bank development programs.
SCCCL would like to acknowledge the work of Brenden Cline, who compiled the resources on this page and created the NEPA and CEQA spreadsheets linked above. To comment on this page or offer suggested materials, please email ColumbiaClimate@gmail.com.
 Note: Two authors are involved in each of the following white papers: “Addressing Climate Change in NEPA and CEQA Documents,” “Alternative Approaches to Analyzing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Climate Change in CEQA Documents,” and “Recommendations by the Association of Environmental Professionals (AEP) on How to Analyze Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Climate Change in CEQA Documents.” Each document is similar, but offers nuanced results rather than a single progression of thought.