On October 26, 2020, Grist and InvestigateWest reported that several studies that had been slated for release as official Department of Energy (DOE) reports were not published. The authors were permitted to publish the studies in scientific journals. However, as noted in the Grist / InvestigateWest report, "[a]rticles in journals are usually less detailed and are published outside the public domain, thus reducing a study's impact." According to the report, one of the affected studies estimated that DOE funding for wind energy research had generated $31.4 billion in economic and societal benefits, delivering an 18-to-1 return on public investment. While the study had originally been planned for release as an official DOE report, it was instead published in a journal, which charges "nearly $8,000 for an annual print subscription."